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Received: September 20, 2021 / Rev.
The cold connection is responsible for storing and transporting perishables, maintaining temperatures to slow down the spoilage process. Cold chain efficiency is often low, significantly increasing food waste and energy consumption. The cabinet is an important link in the cold chain because it has a negative impact on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. It is estimated that around 15% of the world’s fossil fuels are used in the transport cooling sector, so in the last decade there has been an increased interest in these systems to reduce their environmental impact. Vapor pressure systems, usually powered by diesel engines, are the system commonly used to cool vehicles. This paper provides an overview of (a) currently used systems and other technologies that can reduce the environmental impact of refrigerated transport and (b) used models and optimization methods. Reduction of fuel/energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, both focused on reduction. heat load and solving the problem of air-conditioned vehicles.
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Lion; environmental impact; Lion; industrial renewal; patience; carbon dioxide; cold bonds; vaccine; transfer of PCM refrigerators; environmental impact; Lion; industrial renewal; patience; carbon dioxide; cold bonds; vaccine; PCM
The growing need to preserve perishable goods (food, medicine or similar products) together with the widespread use of refrigeration systems, since the 20th century has led to a continuous interest in culture through the process commonly known as “chilling”. Chain”. This expression indicates the way from the producer to the consumer, then to the products that must be stored at a controlled temperature. The cold chain can be divided into five main stages;
Vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) is the most popular system (80% of the market share ) in refrigeration (industrial, commercial, domestic, refrigerators) and air conditioning (home and automobile). These systems consume about 15% of the world’s electricity and generate about 10% of greenhouse gas emissions . In particular, the VCR system produces indirect emissions related to the electrical/mechanical generation of the compressor and direct emissions due to cooling charge loss during the event (up to 30% per year depending on the application). ).
The cooling lake also causes a decrease in the efficiency of the cooling system and therefore an increase in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions . Most refrigerants used are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are exempt from EU regulation. 517/2014  because of the high global warming potential (GWP).
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Much research has been done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with refrigeration and air conditioning systems by replacing HFCs with new refrigerants [5, 6]. Although the direct cooling GWP emissions from low-GWP are negligible compared to HFCs, the increase in energy consumption (and thus indirect emissions) is due to the serious loss of gravity . Mota-Babiloni et al. performed a critical review of the parameters to assess the environmental impact of the RACHP systems (refrigeration, air conditioning, heat pump). .
It is estimated that about a third of the world’s food is consumed or wasted before the food industry reaches its consumption . Perishable foods, such as fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat and fish, must be stored at temperatures throughout the supply chain. The very concept of efficiency can lead to waste. The main problems arise in this regard during transportation, especially in loading and unloading operations . Most of the products are transported by road [10, 11] with special vehicles with insulated parts of the body and a system that can reduce the temperature. . Food waste in the transportation process can be caused by:
Additional information on ventilation and temperature distribution in the cooling chamber 5.2. and 5.3. in section
Unlike static lions, refrigerated transport systems are subject to changes in weather conditions (weather patterns, wall insulation, duration of loading/unloading). This results in a lower COP than the corresponding static structure .
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The presence of an air conditioning system in a car causes an increase in the mechanical load for three reasons: added weight (refrigerator and thermal insulation), an increase in the front surface and therefore the aerodynamic resistance of the car (eg the presence of a condenser in the case of a VCR system) and the amount of power in the fridge , which is usually obtained by extracting the mechanical energy from the internal combustion engine.
Over the years, the number of refrigerated vehicles in circulation has increased, as the number of transported goods has increased. This has led to an increase in energy consumption in the refrigeration industry [12, 14]. It is estimated that around 15% of the world’s fossil energy is used in the transport refrigeration sector . In the VCR system, exhaust gas emissions from the operation of the cooling system, direct and indirect emissions, can reach 40% of the total engine emissions.
Given the growing interest in transport refrigeration, as evidenced by the increasing volume shown in Figure 1, it is critical to review research on refrigeration systems and analysis/improvement methods.
Part 2 describes the method of testing determined in the ATP Agreement (Agreement for the International Vehicle of Perishable Food and the Use of Special Equipment in such Vehicles , abbreviated in French as Transport Perssable) for refrigerated vehicles, confirming that there are no report the standards to the factory or road tests.
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Sections 3 and 4 respectively describe the systems currently in use for transport refrigeration (VCR systems, cryogenic systems, change materials – PCM) and other possible technologies (air, CO
Section 5 deals with the vehicle cooling optimization problem. Then, the methods proposed in the literature to reduce the heat, the estimation of the temperature distribution in the solution cell and the vehicle transport problem (VRP) used for cooling transport are presented. Some ideas are particularly repeated in the literature on these areas;
In 1970, the International Convention on the Transport of Perishable Food (ATP) was signed in Geneva. The ATP agreement is updated from time to time and includes standards for road transport, transportation, sea transport (less than 150 km sea crossing before or after the land journey if it is transported by means of equipment used for road and/or rail without unloading the goods. 16] .
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According to the ATP contract, the insulating capacity of the insulated material is characterized by the value of the heat transfer coefficient (K), calculated by equation (1) (Appendix to the ATP contract);
Where W is the cold power or heat required to maintain the temperature difference and T between the internal and external medium in operation, and S is the average heat exchange rate obtained by equation (2).
The surface of Si and Se is the internal and external area of the cabinet compartment, taking into account the presence of irregularities.
Inspection procedures are defined in the ATP contract
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